Theoretical Bronze Age Minoan Heliographic Aegean Network
Validated by 92.15 Mile (148.3 Km) Mirror Sunlight Flashes


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Line-of-Sight between Mt Wilson & High Point Lookout of 92.15 Miles (148.3 Kms), Varsity Scouting, Operation On Target, Septemeber 21, 2019, Southern California

Line-of-Sight between Mt Wilson & High Point Lookout
Southern California, US
92.15 Miles, 148.3 Kms
September 21, 2019
Credit - Image Postprocessing and Annotation by
Richard Fowell from Video by Pat Walters
Credit - Mt. Wilson Mirror(s) - Norman Vargas


Any theoretical "Bronze Age Minoan Heliographic Network" in the Aegean has been proven valid by teams from Varsity Scouting Operation On-Target stationed on Mt. Wilson with Norman Vargas operating the mirror(s) and at High Point Lookout with Videographer Pat Walters and Scout Advisor Richard Fowell in Southern California with mirror flashes of redirected sunlight at a distance of 92.15 Mile (148.3 Kms) on Sep. 21, 2019 under quite adverse conditions of particulate haze most probably from nearby wildfires to the west of the line-of-sight in the Santa Ana Mountains.

Proposed Backbone of the Minoan Heliographic Communications Network in the Aegean

Proposed Backbone of a Theoretical Minoan
Heliographic Communications Network in the Aegean

The longest functional mirror link with no intermediate land masses in my proposed Minoan Heliographic Network in the Aegean Sea is between the peak of Profitas Ilias on Santorini (Thera) and Mt. Youkhtas just south of Knossos at 79.9 miles (128.6 kms). The next longest link is from Profitas Ilias and Karfi on Crete at 79.3 miles (127.6 kms). The Varsity Scouting's 92.15 mile (148.3 kms) mirror link well exceeds this. It even exceeds the theoretical link I proposed in 2010 between Naxos and Samos which easily could have been greatly reduced by an intermediate link on the islands of Ikaria or Fournoi. Therefore all mirror links for a fully functional Minoan heliographic network in the Aegean have been proven possible. This network was well within the Minoan's technological capability especially now that we definitively know they possessed Bronze mirrors that were equilvalent to our modern aluminum glass mirrors.


Mirror Flash of Redirected Sunlight of 92.15 Miles (148.3 Kms) between Mt Wilson & High Point Lookout, Varsity Scouting, Operation On Target, Septemeber 21, 2019, Southern California

Varsity Scouting Operation On-Target
One of Five Mirror Flashes of Redirected Sunlight
from Mt. Wilson to High Point Lookout
Southern California, US
92.15 Miles, 148.3 Kms
during Atmospheric Particulate Haze from Nearby Fires
using either a 12"x12" (30.5cm x 30.5cm) or an
approx. 16"x28" (40.6cm x 71.1cm) Vanity Mirror
Unable to Determine which Mirror was Used in Image
September 21, 2019
Credit - Image Postprocessing and Annotation by
Richard Fowell from Video by Pat Walters
Credit - Mt. Wilson Mirror(s) - Norman Vargas


Enhanced Image of Mirror Flash of Redirected Sunlight of 92.15 Miles (148.3 Kms) between Mt Wilson & High Point Lookout, Varsity Scouting, Operation On Target, Septemeber 21, 2019, Southern California

Varsity Scouting Operation On-Target
Enhanced Image of
One of Five Mirror Flashes of Redirected Sunlight
from Mt. Wilson to High Point Lookout
Southern California, US
92.15 Miles, 148.3 Kms
during Atmospheric Particulate Haze from Nearby Fires
September 21, 2019
Credit - Image Postprocessing and Annotation by
Richard Fowell from Video by Pat Walters
Credit - Mt. Wilson Mirror(s) - Norman Vargas


The Varsity Scouting Operation On-Target in Southern California conducts two heliographic mirror signaling activities every year. These events are organized by Richard Fowell and take place on the 3rd Saturday of July and September every summer. The above images were taken on September 21, 2019 and show one of five mirror flashes of redirected sunlight from Mt. Wilson taken by a telephoto video camera at High Point Lookout by Pat Walters during quite poor atmospheric conditions using either a relatively small 12"x12" (30.5cm x 30.5cm) mirror or a larger approximately 16"x28" (40.6cm x 71.1cm) "Retail Vanity Mirror" operated by Norman Vargas a research technician at Georgia State University's Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy (CHARA) Array at the Mount Wilson Observatory. Scout Advisor Richard Fowell, who was located at High Point Lookout stated, "I don't think we would have caught these flashes with our naked eyes." but "However, with less haze, I'm sure we'd have been fine."


Horns of Consecration Restoration, East Propyleia, Knossos, Crete, Greece

The Minoan Web of Mirrors and Scripts

The validation process for an ancient Bronze Age Minoan Heliographic network in the Aegean is based on my research and publication from some years ago of "The Minoan Web of Mirrors and Scripts". I realized a mirror-based heliographic network was possible in the ancient Aegean Sea area where I lived for a time, especially with the knowledge that a "High-Tin" Copper alloy could produce a Bronze mirror with >= 85% reflectivity to visible light. Modern glass mirrors also have a reflectivity of >= 85% to visible light, therefore they are equivalent to the Bronze metal mirrors used during the Bronze Age.


Another Newly Discovered Bronze Mirror by the Sissis Archaeological Project on the northern Coast of Crete in the Southern Aegean Sea, Greece

Along with the Griffin Warrior Bronze Mirror
from Pylos in the Peloponnese on Mainland Greece
Yet another Bronze Mirror has been Discovered
by the Sissi Archaeological Project
on the northern Coast of Crete
in the Southern Aegean Sea, Greece


The confirmed distance between the High Point Lookout videographer and the Mt. Wilson mirror flashes is 92.15 miles (148.3 Kms). The longest "functional" link of any Aegean heliographic network is between the peak of Profitas Ilias (elev. 525m, 1,722 ft.) on Santorini (Thera) and Mt. Youkhtas (elev. 783m, 2,569 ft.) just south of Knossos on Crete is a distance of 79.9 Miles (128.6 Kms). The mirror flashes between Mt. Wilson and High Point Lookout well exceed this by 12.25 miles (19.7 Kms).


The Longest Link in my proposed Bronze Age Minoan Heliographic Network is 79.9 Miles (128.6 Kms) between Profitas Ilias Peak, Santorini (Thera) and the Peak Sanctuary Mt. Youkhtas, Crete, Southern Aegean Sea, Greece

The Longest Link in Proposed
Bronze Age Minoan Heliographic Network
Profitas Ilias Peak, Santorini (Thera) and
Peak Sanctuary Mt. Youkhtas, Crete
79.9 Miles (128.6 Kms)
Southern Aegean Sea, Greece



The Most Important Use of Mirrors Redirecting Sunlight
is as Life-Saving Rescue Devices

Kushila Stein was saved by the Hellenic Coast Guard after using a signal mirror reflecting sunlight to alert them of her position 101 Kms (~ 55 nautical miles) north of Crete

Kushila Stein was saved by the Hellenic Coast Guard
after using a signal mirror reflecting sunlight to alert them
of her position 101 Kms (~ 55 nautical miles) north of Crete


While mirrors have been used for millenia for a myriad of purposes there's nothing more vital than their use as life-saving rescue devices. At the beginning of Novermber 2019 Kushila Stein, a native of New Zealand, had been shopping on the Greek island of Folegandros in the Aegean Sea, about 24 miles (38.6 Kms) northwest of Santorini, and was making her way back to her yacht when she lost her dinghy's oar over the side. In the dark, strong Northerly winds blew her out to sea and drowned out her shouts for help. After 37 hours at sea over two nights she was saved by the Hellenic Coast Guard after using a signal mirror reflecting sunlight to alert them of her position about 101 Kms (~ 55 nautical miles) north of Crete.

Concluding Remarks

The above mirror flash(es) were taken under very adverse conditions of fairly dense particulate haze from nearby wildfires which are a frequent occurrence in Southern California. Any continuation in the future of long-range mirror link experiments by the Varsity Scouting Operation On-Target group and their advisor Richard Fowell will hopefully take place in much more favorable atmospheric conditions with confirmable larger mirrors perhaps in the size range of 24"x36" (~61cm x 91cm) or above.

The accumulation of particulate haze from wildfires in the skies over the Aegean Sea is quite rare. Therefore, as it was for the Bronze Age Minoans, the Aegean Sea region is much more optimal for the purpose of mirror signaling of redirected sunlight as a long-range communications device. Therefore, these mirror flashing/signaling experiments should also be enthusiastically encouraged and undertaken by like-minded people and groups in Greece with a desire to recreate the theoretical Bronze Age Minoan technological heritage in the Aegean Sea region.


Richard A. Fowell's
Signal Mirror and Heliography Reference

3 inch x 5 inch Survival Signal Mirror Flashing Redirected Sunlight from 0.7, 11.1, and 43 miles (0:50) Credit: Richard A. Fowell

Richard A. Fowell's
Youtube Heliographic Channel



November 20, 2019



W. Sheppard Baird