The Cento Camerelle Mines of Tuscany: A Major Bronze Age Source of Tin
The Cento Camerelle Mines of Tuscany: A Major Bronze Age Source of Tin


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Campigiliese, Tuscany, Italy View from Southwest

Campigiliese, Tuscany, Italy View from Southwest

Some of you may know of my interest in the availability of tin during the Bronze Age from the following GIS publication:

The Distribution of Tin (Cassiterite): Mediterranean Bronze Age

I published this article online in 2013 based extensively on the world's largest public mineralogical database - Mindat.org. From my research on the Nuraghic Sardinians, I've been looking for deposits of Cassiterite or Stannite for some years now that could explain their abundant production of Bronze objects in the 2nd Millenium BC. Given there are ten locations in Sardinia with mineralizations of Cassiterite I suspected, at least, one of these was possibly a useful source of Bronze Age tin that had been thoroughly exhausted and then later destroyed leaving little or no evidence. This still may be true.

But, after finding nothing beyond mineralizations on Sardinia I recently widened my search following the trail of Cassiterite to Tuscany on the Italian mainland. As my investigation took me on the road to the mines of Monte Valerio I discovered the following works of the Italian scholar Auro Pampaloni:

Pampaloni, 2017, Lo stagno del Campigliese: 40 secoli di uso (Original Italian)

Pampaloni, 2017, The tin of Campigliese: 40 centuries of usage (English Translation)

Google Earth Slideshow
The following images comprise a Google Earth "slideshow" for mining sites and geographical features mentioned in the above publication:

View of the Central Mediterranean Sea

View of the Central Mediterranean Sea


View of Sardinia, Italy

View of Sardinia, Italy


View of Campigliese, Tuscany, Italy

View of Campigliese, Tuscany, Italy


View of Campo alle Buche, Campigliese, Tuscany, Italy

View of Campo alle Buche, Campigliese, Tuscany, Italy


View of Monte Valerio, Campigliese, Tuscany, Italy

View of Monte Valerio, Campigliese, Tuscany, Italy


View of Cento Camerelle, Campigliese, Tuscany, Italy

View of Cento Camerelle, Campigliese, Tuscany, Italy


Overhead View of Cento Camerelle, Campigliese, Tuscany, Italy

Overhead View of Cento Camerelle, Campigliese, Tuscany, Italy



Animated Google Earth Guided Tour: The Bronze Age Cassiterite Mines of Tuscany
If you already have Google Earth Pro setup on your computer all you need to do is download the GIS mapping below but if not you will need to download the free version here:

Download Google Earth Pro - Free!
With Google Earth Pro downloaded, installed, and working properly on your computer you are now ready to simply open the Animated Slideshow KMZ file:

Open the Animated Cento Camerelle Cassiterite Mines Tour

Lead Isotopes Analysis: possible risks and probable errors
The following publication on Lead Isotopes Analysis is tightly coupled with the above paper on Campigliese tin.

Pampaloni, 2017, Lead Isotopes Analysis: possibili rischi e probabili errori (Original Italian)

Pampaloni, 2017, Lead Isotopes Analysis: possible risks and probable errors (English Translation)

September 20, 2017



W. Sheppard Baird